Other Resources


A wide range of information is available on the application and use of compressed air systems. Information is presented here in the following categories:

  • Books and Reports [Go]
  • Brochures [Go]
  • Periodicals [Go]
  • Software [Go]
  • Videos [Go]

The resources and tools presented here are not intended to represent all available information pertaining to compressed air systems. Instead, this list presents the reference material and tools that would be of interest to those involved in energy-efficient compressed air systems. Availability of this information does not imply any endorsement by the Energy Solutions Center for any product or information.



Books and Reports

The books and reports listed are grouped into one of the following three categories:

  • Documents focusing on performance improvement [Go]
  • Specialty books on compressors (e.g., compressor design) [Go]
  • Information on the compressor marketplace [Go]

Documents Focusing on Performance Improvement

Air Compressors and the Compressed Air System
Author: William Scales, P.E.
A comprehensive text on maintaining compressed air systems for peak performance.
Available from:
Scales Air Compressor Corporation
110 Voice Road
Carle Place, NY 11514
Phone: (516) 248-9096
Fax: (516) 248-9639

Assessing Processes For Compressed Air Efficiency
Authors: Bill Howe, P.E. and William Scales, P.E.
The report presents 11 questions managers should answer about their compressed air applications in order to understand whether compressed air is the right tool for the job, how compressed air is applied, how it is delivered and controlled, and how the compressed air system is managed.
Available from:
E SOURCE Reprints Service
1033 Walnut Street
Boulder, CO 80302-5114
Phone: (303) 440-8500
Fax: (303) 440-8502

Compressed Air and Gas Handbook, Fifth Edition
Author: Various Compressed Air and Gas Institute members with John P. Rollins, editor
A comprehensive reference work on all phases of compressed air and gas, this handbook covers reciprocating, rotary, and dynamic compressors; pneumatic tools; construction equipment pneumatic controls; materials handling equipment; and many other topics. The sixth edition will be published in 1998.
Available from:
Prentice-Hall Publishers
200 Old Tappan Road
Old Tappan, NJ 07675
Phone: (800) 223-1360
Fax: (800) 445-6991

Compressed Air Management, Energy Efficiency in Compressed Air Systems Seminar Workbook
Author: T.F. Taranto
Used in seminars, this work book is a resource for the industrial compressed air user. Topics include concepts of compressed air system management, compressed air system investment, cost of compressed air, system performance modeling, bench marking system performance with data measurement, and system management strategies.
Available from:
Data Power, Inc.
P.O. Box 182
Baldwinsville, NY 13027
Phone: (315) 635-1445
FAX: (315) 635-1445

Compressed Air Systems
Author: H. P. Van Ormer
This handbook discusses compressed air systems including departmental and central air systems. It covers topics such as compressor types; application, selection, and installation of rotary and centrifugal air compressors; compressor capacity controls; compressor terminology; determination of air requirements; compressed air dryers; and optimization of systems.
Available from:
Air Power USA, Inc.
P.O. Box 292
Pickerington, OH 43147
Phone: (614) 862-4112
Fax: (614) 862-4112

Compressed Air Systems Solution Series
Author: Scot Foss
This comprehensive text discusses ways to improve the performance of compressed air systems. It is published as a two-year, bi-monthly subscription series. It covers topics such as design issues, troubleshooting, instrumentation, storage, piping, controls, demand issues, and supply issues.
Available from:
Bantra Publishing
Phone: (704) 372-3400

Compressed Air Systems: A Guidebook on Energy and Cost Savings
Author: E.M. Talbott
This guidebook covers topics ranging from compressed air equipment and distribution system layout to final application and system operation.
Available from:
Prentice-Hall Publishers
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
Phone: (800) 223-1360
Fax: (800) 445-6991

Compressed Air Technology Seminar Workbook: Opportunities and Solutions
Author: H. P. Van Ormer
Used in Mr. Van Ormer’s compressed air seminars, this workbook serves as a good resource for those looking to improve the efficiency of their compressed air systems. Topics discussed include compressed air basics, supply equipment, regulation and controls, system design, receiver demand flow regulation, maintenance and reliability, power savings, leak surveys, and flow meters.
Available from:
Air Power USA, Inc.
P.O. Box 292
Pickerington, OH 43147
Phone: (614) 862-4112
Fax: (614) 862-4112

Compressor Engineering Data
Author: William Scales, P.E.
A handbook of reference material on compressed air systems.
Available from:
Scales Air Compressor Corporation
110 Voice Road
Carle Place, NY 11514
Phone: (516) 248-9096
Fax: (516) 248-9639

Compressors and Expanders: Selection and Application for the Process Industry
Author: Heinz P. Bloch
This book identifies preferred equipment types for specific uses, provides easy-to-understand explanations and examples, examines the limitations of the machinery, and compiles data that is scattered throughout the literature. The potential audience includes engineers interested in gas separation, cryogenic processes, and compression stations; manufacturers and purchasers of compressors and turboexpanders; and contractors involved in plant design and machinery selection.
Available from:
Marcel Dekker, Inc.
270 Madison Ave.
New York, NY 10016
Phone: (212) 696-9000
Fax: (212) 685-4540

Compressors: Selection and Sizing, Second Edition
Author: Royce N. Brown
This reference text provides information on compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance; allowing proper estimation of compressor capabilities and selection of designs. Updated with new American Petroleum Institute standards and current technology in areas of efficiency, 3-D geometry, electronics, and plant computer use, this guide covers reciprocating, rotary, and centrifugal compressors and compares their reliability.
Available from:
Gulf Publishing Company
P.O. Box 2608
Houston, TX 07675
Phone: (713) 520-4444
Fax: (713) 520-4433

Pumps/Compressors/Fans: Pocket Handbook
Authors: Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, Paul N. Cheremisinoff
This handbook provides a concise presentation of the fundamentals–design, function, and applications–of pumps, compressors, and fans. It is organized for easy reference and illustrated with more than 80 photographs, diagrams, and other schematics. This text will help engineers and other plant operations personnel in their selection and utilization of pump, fan, and compressor equipment.
Available from:
Technomic Publishing Company, Inc.
851 New Holland Ave.
Box 3535
Lancaster, PA 17604
Phone: (800) 233-9936
Fax: (717) 295-4538

Specialty Books on Compressors

Centrifugal Compressor Design and Performance
Author: David Japikse
This publication is both a state-of-the-art review of the technology base of centrifugal compressors and a practical guide to designers.
Available from:
Concepts ETI, Inc.
4 Billings Farm Road
White River Junction, VT 05001
Phone: (802) 296-2321
Fax: (802) 296-2325

Compressor Performance: Selection, Operation, and Testing of Axial and Centrifugal Compressors
Author: M. Theodore Gresh
This book is divided into two main sections. In the theory section of the book, the author introduces aerodynamics, thermodynamics, aerodynamic components, and compressor characteristics. In the application section, the author discusses equipment selection, operation, field performance testing, troubleshooting, and flow meters.
Available from:
Butterworth Heinemann
225 Wildwood Ave.
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone: (617) 928-2500 or (800) 366-2665
Fax: (617) 933-6333

Control of Centrifugal Compressors
Author: Ralph L. Moore
This text provides comprehensive information on the techniques for controlling centrifugal compressors. In addition to compressor control issues, optimization of compressor operation and multiple compressor systems are topics also discussed.
Available from:
Instrument Society of America
67 Alexander Drive
P.O. Box 12277
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
Phone: (919) 549-8411
Fax: (919) 549-8288

Fluid Movers, Second Edition
Authors: Nicholas P. Chopey and Chemical Engineering Magazine Editors
This text is a compilation of current articles on the movement of fluids with pumps, compressors, fans, and blowers from Chemical Engineering Magazine.
Available from:
P. O. Box 546
Blacklick, OH 43004-0546
Phone: (800) 722-4726
Fax: (614) 755-5654

Leak-free Pumps and Compressors, 1st Edition
Author: Gerhard Vetter
As environmental regulations concerning leaks and emissions become more stringent, this practical reference manual targets those concerned with systems using leak-free pumps or compressors. This handbook explains the various designs and properties of leak-free pumps and helps you select the right pump or compressor to ensure leak-free systems, whatever the application.
Available from:
Elsevier Advanced Technology
Mayfield House
256 Banbury Road
Oxford OX2 7DH England
Phone: 01865-512242
Fax: 01865-310981

Optimization of Unit Operations: Boilers, Chemical Reactors, Chillers, Clean Rooms, Compressors, Condensers, Heat Exchangers, HVAC Systems, Pumping Stations, Reboilers, and Vaporizers
Author: Bela G. Liptak
This text examines the technical and practical applications of plant multivariable development control. Optimization of various systems is discussed in detail.
Available from:
Krawse Publications
700 E. State St.
Iola, WI 54990
Phone: (888) 457-2873
Fax: (715) 445-4087

Reciprocating Compressors: Operation and Maintenance
Authors: Heinz P. Bloch and John J. Hoefner
This book discusses the theory of operation and describes methods of proper installation, troubleshooting, overhauling, and repairing of all types of reciprocating compressors. Engineers and maintenance personnel in the process industries such as mining, food processing, pharmaceuticals, and petrochemicals will find this text useful.
Available from:
Gulf Publishing Company
P.O. Box 2608
Houston, TX 77252-2608
Phone: (713) 520-4444
Fax: (713) 520-4433

Rotary Screw Air Compressors
Author: H. P. Van Ormer
This guide provides a close look at the lubricant-cooled rotary compressor and its role in construction and industrial applications. It discusses the history, development, basic technology, application, selection, installation, and general maintenance of rotary screw air compressors.
Available from:
Air Power USA, Inc.
P.O. Box 292
Pickerington, OH 43147
Phone: (614) 862-4112
Fax: (614) 862-4112

Information on the Compressor Marketplace

Compressors – Air & Gas Wholesale
This annual directory features information on 4,180 wholesalers of air and gas compressors.
Available from:
American Business Information, Inc.
5711 South 86th Circle
P.O. Box 27347
Omaha, NE 68127-0347
Phone: (402) 593-4500
Fax: (402) 331-5481

Compressors, Vacuum Pumps, and Industrial Spraying Equipment
Author: Specialists in Business Information, Inc.
The U.S. market for air and gas compressors, vacuum pumps, and industrial spraying equipment strengthened in 1995 and 1996. Specialists in Business Information (SBI) has compiled and analyzed data on U.S. factory shipments, imports, exports, industry costs structure, and the competitive environment to uncover strategies that will allow manufacturers and marketers to penetrate growing markets in this $4-billion industry. SBI has also profiled worldwide manufacturers and reviewed their recent developments as part of an exhaustive effort to provide competitor intelligence. In addition, SBI has extracted sales and profit trends for 16 manufacturers in order to compare company performance with industry averages. Some of the major producers profiled include Dresser-Rand, Gardner Denver, Nordson, and Sunstrand.
Available from:
Specialists in Business Information, Inc.
3375 Park Ave.
Wantagh, NY 11793

Pumps and Compressors
Author: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census
This annual Current Industrial Report provides statistics on the quantity and value of manufacturers’ shipments, number of producers by product type and industry, exports, and imports. These statistics reflect market trends in the pump and compressor industry.
Available from:
U.S. Department of Commerce
Bureau of the Census
Gaithersburg, MD
Phone: (301) 457-4100
Fax: (301) 457-4794
The report can be downloaded from the Census Bureau’s Web site (http://www.census.gov).

The U.S. Pump and Compressor Industry
Author: Business Trend Analysts, Inc.
This market research report assesses the market for pumps and compressors, including reciprocating, rotary, and centrifugal air compressors, by gathering data and conducting analyses. The report presents data on U.S. manufacturers’ sales and analysis of end-use demand by industry for pumps and compressors. Additional information includes pump and compressor industry statistics, trade, corporate profiles, and a directory of manufacturers.
Available from:
Business Trend Analysts, Inc.
2171 Jericho Turnpike
Commack, NY 11725-2900
Phone: (516) 462-5454
Fax: (516) 462-1842

U.S. Stationary Compressors Market
Author: Frost & Sullivan
This report provides forecast information for the entire U.S. compressor and vacuum pump market. Market forecasts are based on revenues and growth rates, unit shipments and pricing trends, competitive analyses, and market and technology trends. The market is also analyzed by examining advancements in technology, materials, and manufacturing processes. The market is comprised of major segments which include positive-displacement compressors and dynamic-type compressors.
Available from:
Frost & Sullivan
90 West Street, Suite 1301
New York, NY 10006
Phone: (212) 964-7000
Fax: (212) 619-0831


The following brochures are available from the Compressed Air and Gas Institute at:

The Compressed Air and Gas Institute
1300 Sumner Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44115-2851
Phone: (216) 241-7333
Fax: (216) 241-0105

Air Compressor Selection and Application: 1/4 HP through 25 HP
Author: CAGI
This publication provides a detailed summary of the types of compressors available, their intended application, and selection criteria for a variety of industries.

Compressed Air and Gas: An Introduction
Author: Lynn Adkins Guda
This booklet presents a brief discussion of compressed air as an important means of transmitting power. It introduces compressed air and gas theory, compressors, and uses.

Compressed Air and Gas: In Manufacturing
Author: William D. Ellis
This brochure describes the uses of compressed air in producing capital and consumer goods. Examples of compressed air use include lightweight pneumatic tools and controls on the assembly line and in automation.

Compressed Air and Gas: The Process Industries
Author: William D. Ellis
This booklet discusses the role of compressors in the process industries, where products such as chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and plastics require large volumes of compressed air and gas for production.

Compressed Air and Gas Drying
Author: CAGI
This brochure explains the need for air and gas drying. It includes a step-by-step dryer specifying guide, technical illustrations, and appropriate technical appendices.

Refrigerated Compressed Air Dryers-Methods for Testing and Rating
Author: CAGI
This brochure provides a uniform procedure to measure and rate the performance of refrigerated compressed air dryers.

Rotary Air Compressor Selection Guide
Author: CAGI
This publication covers the complete range of rotary air compressors and discusses selection criteria, capacity control, compressor accessories, and examples of applications.

Safety Aspects of Compressor Lubricants
This publication discusses the safety aspects of petroleum-based and synthetic lubricants for air and gas compressors.


Compressed Air
Compressed Air is Ingersoll-Rand’s magazine of applied technology and industrial management and contains informative articles on compressed air and gas applications and other related technological innovations.
Available from:
Compressed Air
253 East Washington Avenue
Washington, NJ 07882-2495
Phone: (908) 850-7817
Fax: (908) 689-3095

Impact Compressor/Turbine News & Patents
This newsletter (10 issues per year) describes new compressor/turbine patents and new developments in the compressor/turbine field. It includes listings of current articles, seminars, books, and industry news.
Available from:
Impact Publications
Ketchum, ID
Phone: (208) 726-2133
Fax: (208) 726-2155

Other Periodicals

The following magazines often contain articles about improving the performance of compressed air systems, and can be a very good source of state-of-the-art information:

  • AFE Facilities Engineering (Association of Facilities Engineering
  • Maintenance Technolog
  • Plant Engineerin
  • Plant Service


AIRMaster: Compressed Air System Assessment Software
AIRMaster is a software package that enables engineers, auditors, energy managers, and utility staff to assess the performance of their industrial compressed air systems. The latest version of this software, AIRMaster+, is in development and is projected to be available in late 1998. For more information and to request to be put on the AIRMaster+ mailing list, contact the Motor Challenge Information Clearinghouse.
Available from:
The Motor Challenge Information Clearinghouse
P.O. Box 43171
Olympia, WA 98504-3171
Phone: (800) 862-2086
Fax: (206) 586-8303

CHEMCALC 15: Centrifugal Compressor Design and Rating
Based on the theories of Elliott and Ingersoll-Rand, CHEMCALC 15 will: 1) design a compressor and analyze a multi-stage compressor with up to four stages of compression; 2) analyze the performance of an existing compressor by calculating new operating conditions based on design operating conditions and curve and actual process conditions; and 3) calculate the thermodynamic properties of a gas mixture, including molecular weight, critical temperature, critical pressure, specific heat ratio, and gas constant.
Available from:
Gulf Publishing Company Software
P.O. Box 2608
Houston, TX 77252-2608
Phone: (800) 231-6275, (713) 520-4448
Fax: (713) 520-4433


Three videos are available from CAGI:

Compressed Air: Industry’s Fourth Utility
This video presents a broad overview of air compression, distribution, and treatment. It describes key considerations in designing and specifying a compressed air system, including compressor selection, distribution considerations, air dryers, and filters. (Running time: 13 minutes)

Performance Under Pressure
This video discusses the role of compressed air and gas in various applications ranging from residential to industrial. (Running time: 16 minutes)

Principles of Air Compression
In nontechnical terms, this video explains the theory and principles involved in air compression. It illustrates the operation of both positive-displacement and dynamic-type compressors and introduces key terms, such as PSIG, SCFM, relative humidity, and dew point, to the audience. (Running time: 14 minutes)
All available from:

The Compressed Air and Gas Institute
1300 Sumner Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44115-2851
Phone: (216) 241-7333
Fax: (216) 241-0105

Safety and Use of Air Compressors
This video program shows how to operate an air compressor system safely and efficiently. Topics include moving the air compressor, compressor parts, lubrication, and maintenance. (Running time: 13 minutes)
Available from:
SafetyCare Inc.
26161 La Paz Road Suite A
Mission Viejo, CA 92691
Phone: (714) 452-1555
Fax: (714) 452-1556


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